Approximately 70,000 new cases of invasive melanoma are diagnosed in the United States each year. It’s one of the most frequently occurring cancers in young adults ages 20 to 30, and it's the main cause of cancer death in women 25 to 30 years old.
While melanoma accounts for only 3% of all types of the skin cancer, it has the highest death rate of all types and is more likely to spread (metastasize) in the body. It is becoming more much more common.
What is Melanoma?
Melanoma is a skin cancer that starts in melanocytes (cells that make melanin), which give skin its pigment, or color. Sometimes these cells change, often because of damage caused by sun exposure. Over time, this damage may result in cancer.
Melanoma usually appears as an:
- Irregular brown, black and/or red spot or
- Existing mole that begins to change color, size or shape
Melanoma appears most commonly on the trunk area in fair-skinned men and on the lower legs in fair-skinned women. In dark-skinned people, melanoma appears most frequently on the palms, the soles of the feet and the skin under nails. If caught early, melanoma is often curable.
Melanoma is divided into several types. The treatment and outlook for each is different.
There are four major types of cutaneous melanoma:
Superficial spreading melanoma:
- Most common form of melanoma
- About 70% of cases
- Usually starts in a pre-existing mole
- Second most common type
- 15% to 30% of cases
- More aggressive and usually develops quicker than superficial melanomas
Lentigo maligna melanoma:
- Appears as large, flat lesions
- Most commonly found on the faces of light-skinned women over 50
- 4% to 10% of cases
- Lower risk of spreading than other types
Acral lentiginous melanoma:
- Occurs on the palms, soles of the feet or beneath the nail beds
- 2% to 8% of melanomas in fair-skinned patients
- Up to 60% of melanomas in darker-skinned patients
- Large, with an average diameter of 3 centimeters
- About 1% of melanoma cases
- Occurs in mucosal tissue, which lines body cavities and hollow organs
- Most common sites are head and neck region (including the nasal cavity, mouth and esophagus), rectum, urinary tract and vagina
- Can be very difficult to detect
- Even when diagnosed and treated, the outlook is often poor
Melanoma of the eye (ocular melanoma)
Because the eyes contain melanocytes, they can be susceptible to melanoma. Read more about the two types of ocular melanoma:
- Uveal Melanoma
- Conjunctival Melanoma
Some cases of melanoma can be passed down from one generation to the next. Genetic counseling may be right for you. Learn more about the risk to you and your family on our genetic testing page.
Some people have an elevated risk of developing melanoma. Review the melanoma screening guidelines to see if you need to be tested.
Behavioral and lifestyle changes can help prevent melanoma. Visit our prevention and screening section to learn how to manage your risk.
Anything that increases your chance of getting melanoma is a risk factor.
Sun damage, especially a history of peeling sunburns, is the main risk factor for melanoma. Artificial sunlight from tanning beds causes the same risk for melanoma as natural sunlight.
Other risk factors for melanoma include:
- Fair complexion: People with blond or red hair, light skin, blue eyes and a tendency to sunburn are at increased risk.
- Previous melanoma
- Moles (nevi): Having a lot of benign (non-cancer) moles
- Family history of melanoma
- Atypical mole and melanoma syndrome (AMS): Previously known as dysplastic nevus syndrome, AMS is characterized by large numbers of atypical moles. If you have AMS, you and your family members should be screened regularly
Not everyone with risk factors gets melanoma. However, if you have risk factors, it’s a good idea to discuss them with your health care provider.