More than 9,000 people are diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the United States each year. It occurs mainly in individuals:
- Between 16 and 34 years of age
- Over age 55
Most patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma, even in advanced stages, can be treated successfully. However, treatment may cause late side effects, and sometimes the disease returns.
Lymphoma is a general term for cancers that develop in the lymph system, which is part of the body’s immune system. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of lymphoma that develops in the white blood cells. Almost all Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases contain Reed-Sternberg cells, a specific type of large cancer cell that is not found in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. While Hodgkin’s lymphoma can start in the lymph nodes, it can spread to almost any organ or tissue, including the liver, bone marrow and spleen.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Types
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is divided into two major types according to how the lymph cells look under a microscope and whether Reed-Sternberg cells are present. Knowing the type of lymphoma helps doctors determine your best treatment.
Classical Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is the most common type in the United States. It accounts for about 95% of cases and is the most curable Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Subtypes include:
- Nodular Sclerosing Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: The affected lymph nodes have mixed areas of normal cells, Reed-Sternberg cells and prominent scar tissue. This is the most common type, making up 60% to 80% of cases. It is more common in adolescents and young adults, but it can occur at any age.
- Lymphocyte-Rich Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: This recently created subtype in the past was confused sometimes with lymphocyte-predominant lymphoma. It is similar to mixed cellularity Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
- Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: The affected lymph nodes contain many Reed-Sternberg cells in addition to several other cell types. Mixed cellularity accounts for about 25% to 30% of cases of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It primarily affects older adults.
- Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Large numbers of Reed-Sternberg cells, but very few other cell types, are found in the lymph nodes. This is the least common form of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and it is seen more often in people who are elderly or have AIDS.
Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: This rare disease accounts for just 5% of Hodgkin’s lymphoma diagnoses and is most common among men between 35 and 40. Unlike other types of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, it produces no Reed-Sternberg cells. It is usually diagnosed at an early stage and has an excellent survival rate.
Lymphoma Risk Factors
Anything that increases your chance of getting Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a risk factor. Although Hodgkin’s lymphoma usually develops in people who have no risk factors, the following things may mean you are more likely to develop it:
- Age: Hodgkin’s lymphoma is most common in young adults (15 to 40 years) and older adults (over 55 years old).
- Gender: Males are slightly more likely to develop Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
- Viruses: The risk is small, but some viruses may make you more likely to get Hodgkin’s lymphoma. These include:
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
- Infectious mononucleosis (mono)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Human T-cell lymphocytotropic virus (HTLV)
- Family history: If you have a parent, brother or sister with Hodgkin’s lymphoma, you have an increased risk of developing the disease.
Not everyone with risk factors gets Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, if you have risk factors, you should discuss them with your doctor.