If your child has symptoms that may signal medulloblastoma, the doctor will examine your child and ask you questions about your child’s health. The doctor also may do a neurological exam to test reflexes, muscle strength, vision and other functions of the brain and spine.
If anything appears abnormal, the doctor may refer your child to a neurologist, neurosurgeon or neuro-oncologist, doctors who specialize in the nervous system.
One or more of the following diagnostic tests may be used to find out if your child has a medulloblastoma and if it has spread. These tests also may be used to find out if treatment is working.
Imaging tests, which may include:
- CT (computed tomography) scans
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
- PET (positive emission tomography) scan
Biopsy: If an MRI or CT of the brain shows a tumor in the lower part of the back of the brain, medulloblastoma may be a possibility. A biopsy will be needed to confirm the diagnosis. In a biopsy, a tissue sample is removed from the tumor and looked at with a microscope.
A biopsy may be done by either of three methods:
- Surgery: In an operation called a craniotomy, all or part of the brain tumor is removed.
- Sterotactic (needle) biopsy: If a tumor is difficult to reach, a CT scan may be used to help doctors guide a hollow needle inside the tumor and remove a small amount of tissue.
- Lumbar puncture: A small amount of cerebrospinal fluid (clear liquid in and around the brain and spine) is removed with a needle and looked at with a microscope.
Getting a Second Opinion at Children’s Cancer Hospital
The pediatric cancer experts at Children’s Cancer Hospital welcome the opportunity to provide second opinions for medulloblastoma.
If you would like to get a second opinion at Children’s Cancer Hospital, call 877-632-6789 to make an appointment or request an appointment online.
After a medulloblastoma has been surgically removed, it will be classified in one of two categories.
Standard risk medulloblastoma:
- Less than 1.5 centimeters of tumor is left after surgery
- Cancer has not spread
- Patient is between three and 21 years old
- More than 1.5 centimeters of tumor is left after surgery or cancer has spread to another part of the body
- Patient is between between 3 and 21 years old
Research has identified at least four distinct subtypes of medulloblastoma. The pediatric brain tumor team at Children’s Cancer Hospital has the expertise to treat each subtype accordingly to its molecular properties.