Symptoms of Wilms' tumor vary from child to child. Because tumors often grow large before they are discovered, the main symptom is a bloated or enlarged abdomen. A mass in the abdomen also might be noticed.
Other signs of Wilms' tumor include:
- Blood in the urine
- High blood pressure
- Stomach pain
- Loss of appetite
- Shortness of breath
- Recurring fever
If your child has these symptoms, they are probably caused by something less serious than Wilms' tumor. However, it's a good idea to talk to your child's doctor, as they may signal other health problems.
Wilms' Tumor Risk Factors
Anything that increases your child's chance of getting Wilms' tumor is a risk factor. Although we don't know exactly what causes Wilms' tumors, some things may make your child more likely to develop the disease.
Risk factors include:
- Age: Most children who develop Wilms' tumors are between 3 and 5 years old
- Race: Wilms' tumor is more common in African American children. It is least prevalent in Asian American children
- Gender: It is more common in females
- Birth defect syndromes, including:
- Other birth defects, including:
- Aniridia (complete or partial lack of the iris [colored area] of the eyes)
- Hemihypertrophy (an oversized arm and/or leg on one side of the body)
- Cryptorchidism (failure of the testicles to descend into the scrotum) in boys
- Hypospadias (defect in boys where the urinary opening is on the underside of the penis)
- Other genetic conditions, including:
- Perlman syndrome
- Sotos syndrome
- Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome
- Bloom syndrome
- Li-Fraumeni syndrome
- Frasier syndrome
- Trisomy 18
Not everyone with risk factors gets Wilms' tumor. However, if your child has risk factors, you should discuss them with your doctor.