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Histotechnology

Histotechnology is the specialty devoted to the application of theoretical knowledge and practical techniques in biologic and chemical sciences in the preparation of tissue samples for microscopic examination.

Degree Offered
Bachelor of Science in Histotechnology (HTL)

The program is administered by:

  • Dean: Shirley Richmond, Ed.D.
  • Program Director: Mark A. Bailey, M.A., HTL(ASCP)CM
  • Education Coordinator: Toysha Mayer, D.H.Sc., MBA, HT (ASCP)
  • Senior Health Professions Educator: Hilda Hinojosa, BS, HTL(ASCP)cm
  • Medical Advisor: Stanley R. Hamilton, M.D.

Roster of Faculty

FacultyDegree and SchoolTeaching Assignments
Mark A. Bailey
HTL (ASCP)CM
Assistant Professor
M.A., Texas A&M University
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Theory and Practice of Histotechniques
  • Theory of Special Staining
  • Clinical Histotechniques Lab Rotations I, II, III
  • Medical Terminology
Toysha Mayer
HT (ASCP)
Instructor

D.H.Sc.
Nova Southeastern University.


M.B.A., University of Phoenix

  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Theory and Practice of Histotechniques
  • Theory of Special Staining
  • Clinical Histotechniques Laboratory Rotations I,II,III
  • Histotechnology Lab Operations I, II
Shaun Caldwell
Assistant Professor
M.S., Weber State University
  • Diversity and Cultural Competence
Adjunct Faculty
Colleen Gallagher
Associate Professor
Ph.D., The Union Institute and University
  • Issues in Health Care Ethics
Harry R. Gibbs
Associate Professor
M.D., Harvard Medical School
  • Diversity and Cultural Competence
Stanley R. Hamilton
Professor
M.D., Indiana University School of Medicine
  • Human Pathology
Cynthia Maurstad
Adjunct Instructor
Ph.D., University of Louisiana, Lafayette
  • Pathophysiology for Health Professions
Liza Di Filippo
CT(ASCP)
M.H.A., M.B.A.
Our Lady of the Lake University
  • Theory of Cytotechnology Preparation I & II
Hilda Hinojosa
HTL (ASCP)CM
B.S., University of Houston
  • Clinical Histotechniques Lab Rotation I
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Theory & Practice of Histotechnology I & II

The Program in Histotechnology

Mission

The MD Anderson Cancer Center Program in Histotechnology, in concert with the mission and vision of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, is committed to the education of technically and academically competent graduates prepared to meet the immediate and future needs of the Histotechnology profession.

Objectives
The primary objective of the Histotechnology program is to provide entry level histotechnologists who are prepared to perform a wide variety of routine as well as more advanced laboratory techniques such as:

  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Tissue Management

Our graduates are prepared to work in a variety of settings such as hospitals, medical schools, veterinary medicine, research, private independent laboratories, industry and local, state and federal agencies in both urban and rural settings.

Selection Process
Admission is dependent on factors that include:

  • Cumulative GPA, Science and Math GPA
  • Personal qualities such as maturity
  • Professional goals based on the personal essay, interview, reference letters, laboratory experience and employment history
  • Ability to meet the SHP non-academic technical standards.
  • Race, religion, national origin, veteran status, gender, and disability are not factors considered in the selection process.

Applicants should begin the application process three to six months prior to the application deadline to ensure all documents are received and processed by the UTHSC-Houston Registrar’s office. See SHP Academic Calendar for application dates.

Nonacademic Requirements
For a description of the non-academic technical standards requirements for admission, visit the admission section of the Student Catalog's Policies and Procedures.

Program Admission Requirements

The Bachelor of Science degree is either a one-year or two-year program with entry at either the junior or senior level. Application and supporting documents must be submitted to the Office of the Registrar.      

Applicants to the Program of Histotechnology must satisfy the following requirements for admission.

All prerequisite course work must be from a regionally accredited college or university.

The applicant must have satisfactorily completed all prerequisite courses listed prior to graduating. These courses must be lecture and laboratory courses acceptable toward a degree by majors in those fields and cannot be survey courses.

Applicants to the Histotechnology Program must have completed all core curriculum courses required by the Texas Education Code and all biology and chemistry courses required by the

Board of Registry of the American Society for Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) 
33 West Monroe Street, Suite 1600
Chicago, IL 60603
Phone: 312-541-4999
Fax: 312-541-499

A minimum grade point average of 2.5 on a 4.0 scale both overall and in science and mathematics courses is required to be considered for admission. Special circumstances may be considered, but at the discretion of the Admissions Committee.

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) - All applicants must provide proof of successful assessment of the Texas Success Initiative (TSI). Applicants who have graduated with an associate or baccalaureate degree from an accredited Texas College or University are exempt from TSI. Proof of an applicant's readiness to enroll in college level course work will be determined by the Registrar's Office based upon review of official transcripts from previously attended institutions.

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) - Applicants from countries where English is not the native language may be required to take the TOEFL. Internet based TOEFL is now available and a total test score ranging from 74-78 with a minimum score of 18 in each section is required.

Prerequisites

Prerequisites for the two-year program

A minimum of 60 semester credit hours (SCH) that includes:

  • The Texas Core Curriculum – 42 SCH (see table below)
  • An additional - 18 SCH

Within the above 60 hours, the following must be included:

  • 3 SCH in college mathematics, or statistics which may be satisfied by the Texas Core course selection
  • 22 SCH in Biology and Chemistry   

Note: 12 of the above 25 SCH may be satisfied by Natural Science Texas Core course selection

Prerequisites for the one-year program

A minimum of 86 semester credit hours (SCH) that includes:

  • The Texas Core Curriculum – 42 SCH (see table below)
  • An additional - 44 SCH

Within the above 86 hours, the following must be included:

  • 18 SCH of upper level division courses (3000, 4000).
  • 28 SCH in Biology and Chemistry

Note: 12 of the above 46 SCH may be satisfied by Natural Science Texas Core course selection

 

The Texas Core Curriculum – 42 Semester Credit Hours (SCH)

that must include courses from the following specific areas as indicated

SCH

COMMUNICATION (6 SCH)

•           ENGL 1301   English Composition I

•           ENGL 1302   English Composition II

 

 6

MATHEMATICS (3 SCH)

•           MATH 1314   College Algebra or higher

 

 3

NATURAL SCIENCES (12 SCH)

Courses in biology, chemistry, physics, geology or other natural sciences

 

12

HUMANITIES (3 SCH)

Courses in literature, philosophy, modern or classical language/literature, cultural studies or equivalent

 

 3

VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS (3 SCH)

Courses in arts, dance, music appreciation, music, drama or equivalent

 

 3

HISTORY (6 SCH)

•           HIST 1301    United States History I

•           HIST 1302    United States History II

 

 6

GOVERNMENT (6 SCH)

•           GOVT 2301   American Government I

•           GOVT 2302   American Government II

 

 6

SOCIAL SCIENCES (3 SCH)

Courses in anthropology, economics, criminal justice, geography, psychology, sociology, social work or equivalent

 

 3
Total Texas Core Curriculum  SCH42

http://statecore.its.txstate.edu/

About the Texas Core Curriculum 

Each institution's Core Curriculum applies to all academic degrees. They range from 42 to 48 credit hours, depending on the college or university. Each Core Curriculum is divided into 8 or 9 categories that are common across the state. If you take the approved Core natural science courses at institution A, they are annotated on your transcript with a Core code by A and must be accepted as fulfilling that portion of the Core at institution B or any other Texas public institution. If Astronomy is a Core natural science at A and is not at B, it must still be accepted at B. This is a whole new way of doing things because the school where you take the course decides how it will transfer. And that decision is binding on any Texas school to which you transfer.

Advanced Placement

The School of Health Professions accepts and/or awards credit through the following examination programs:

  • College level examination program of the College Board
  • Comprehensive departmental examinations
  • Regionally accredited military training programs

Recommendations from the School's academic departments are followed with regard to minimum score requirements, level of credit and amount of credit to be awarded. Program faculty are consulted to determine if credit recommendations equate to specific School of Health Professions (SHP) courses. The internal comprehensive departmental examination program provides a local means for establishing knowledge of SHS course content in areas not covered by the above examination program. Programs may elect to administer examinations that cover material specific to SHS courses with the results being reported to the Registrar

Graduation

Each candidate for a baccalaureate degree must complete a minimum of 126 semester credit hours of course work. Within this requirement, students must complete the following at MD Anderson:

  • At least 40 semester credit hours of advanced (3000/4000) course work
  • At least 25% of the total semester credit hours required must be taken at MD Anderson

Graduation occurs in August. Upon graduation, students are eligible to take the national certification exam in histotechnology given by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) board of registry. Please check with the program director for application deadlines and exam dates. Upon passing either exam, the student is considered to be a certified histotechnologist. The awarding of the degree is not contingent upon a student passing the national certification exam.

Curriculum

This intensive two-year program is composed of a didactic phase followed by directed clinical training at affiliated hospitals and laboratories. During the didactic phase, formal lectures, demonstrations and rotations through clinical laboratories provide experience in routine and specialized procedures.

Laboratory sessions are coordinated with lectures and cover the fundamentals of diagnostic laboratory procedures and are included in the didactic phase. The program maintains an extensive collection of reference books, microscopic slides and projection slides for use in lectures and independent study.

Students are expected to maintain high academic performance and display appropriate professional and ethical behavior during all phases of their education and training.

Clinical Affiliates

The Program in Histotechnology has developed affiliations with reference labs and medical institutions in Houston, so that students will develop expertise in a variety of settings and experience the breadth of opportunity available to a certified histotechnologist. During the clinical phase of instruction, training and supervision are provided in affiliated clinical laboratories:

Austin, TX
Seton Family of Hospitals

Cypress, TX
North Cypress Medical Center

Houston, TX
Applied Diagnostics
Harris Health System
Memorial Hermann Southwest Hospital
Houston Methodist Hospital – TMC
University of Texas Medical School -TMC

rAccreditation

The Histotechnology program is accredited by, and the  curriculum conforms to the standards published and monitored by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS)
5600 N. River Rd., Suite 720
Rosemont, IL 60018-5119
Phone: 773-714-8880
Fax: 773-714-8886

Course listings


Histotechnology Junior Year:
The Laboratory Sciences programs admits students at the Junior Year level who share a Junior Year curriculum consisting of:

•           Shared core courses
•           Program-specific core courses
•           Program-specific elective courses

Histotechnology(HISTO): Junior Year coursesSCH
  
Laboratory Sciences: shared core courses 
HS 3102 Molecular Techniques Lab1
HS 3210 Laboratory Mathematics2
HS 4310 Medical Microbiology3
HS 4100 Issues in Health Care Ethics          1
HS 4101 Diversity and Cultural Competence1
TOTAL CORE COURSES SCH

    8             

 

 

HISTO Program Core 
HS 3110 Medical Terminology1
HS 3310 Introduction to Quality in Health Care      3
HS 3300 Immunology3
HS 3320 Medical Genetics3
HS 3340 Research Methods3
TOTAL HISTO PROGRAM CORE SCH

              13

  
HISTO Program  Electives, by Semester:

 

FALL ELECTIVES: 4hrs from list below     4      
HS 3270 Critical Thinking in Health Professions                2
HS 4111L Medical Microbiology Lab                1
HS 4160 Critical Scientific Analysis                1
HS 3330 Pathology of Body Fluids                3
  
SPRING ELECTIVES: 3hrs  from  list below                       3
DI 4310  Education Methodologies3
HS 3333 Statistics3
 

 

TOTAL HISTO  JUNIOR YEAR  SCH28

 

 

HISTO Senior Year**
Courses
SCH
CT 4102 Theory and Practice of Cytopreparatory Techniques I1
CT 4111 Theory and Practice of Cytopreparatory Techniques II1
HS 3254  Immunohistochemistry2
HS 4300  Pathophysiology3
HT 4141 Applied Chemistry - Laboratory Operations I1
HT 4142 Applied Chemistry - Laboratory Operations II1
HT 4312 Theory & Practice of Histotechniques I3
HT 4399 Special Topics in Histotechnology3
HT 4413 Theory & Practice of Histotechniques II4
HT 4444 Theory of Special Stains4
HT 4521 Histotechniques Laboratory Rotation I5
HT 4522 Histotechniques Laboratory Rotation II5
HT 4523 Histotechniques Laboratory Rotation III5
Total38**

**Students entering the School of Health Professions for the first time at the Senior level must take the following additional required courses that are described in the Junior Year for Laboratory Sciences section of the catalog:

HS 4100 Issues in Health Care Ethics (1)**
HS 4101 Diversity and Cultural Competence (1) **

Course Descriptions

HS series course descriptions, including Junior Lab Sciences

HS 3102 Molecular Techniques Laboratory (1 semester credit hour)
A study of the laboratory skills involved in transporting, preparing and reporting final results of specimens that include blood, bone marrow and solid tissue samples. The course will provide participants with hands-on laboratory experience in: performing molecular techniques such as DNA extraction, purification and quantification; preparing and viewing PCR products and DNA fingerprints via gel electrophoresis and bacterial transformation. (Admission to Program)

HS 3110 Medical Terminology (1 semester credit hour)
An introduction to medical terminology. Emphasis on word roots, prefixes, suffixes, spelling and analysis of unfamiliar terms. Additional background information on the anatomy that relates to various body systems will be discussed.

HS 3120 Introduction to Cytogenetics (1 semester credit hours)
A detailed study of human G-banded chromosomes. Includes instruction in banding pattern recognition and polymorphic variation. Includes classroom instruction and hands-on experience.

HS 3203 Advanced Molecular Techniques (2 semester credit hours)
This is a continuation of the previous introduction to molecular techniques laboratory course. Emphasis on performing additional molecular techniques such as, but not limited to various DNA extraction methods, amplification methods, electrophoresis, and fluorescent in-situ hybridization.

HS 3210 Laboratory Math (2 semester credit hours)
The basic principles and theory of clinical, biochemical, and analytical laboratory math related calculations.  It includes basic operations such as problem solving using percentiles, rates, ratios, mole ratios, molality, pH, conversions, solving for proportions and more.

HS 3254 Immunohistochemistry (2 semester credit hours)
A comprehensive course that deals with the fundamentals of immunohistochemistry as applied to the theory and practical techniques in histopathology. The students acquire basic knowledge of how immunology is applied in the development of immunohistochemistry reagents and techniques. Emphasis will be placed on the clinical significance of diagnostic and prognostic indicators used in immunohistochemistry techniques. Troubleshooting and standardization of reagents are emphasized.

HS 3270 Critical Thinking in Health Professions (2 semester credit hours)
This course is designed to provide health professions students with resources for improving critical thinking skills. The course will introduce basic concepts of critical thinking through integration into interactive case studies, problem based scenarios, and project design assignments. The specific objectives of this course coincide with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center School of Health Professions’ definition of critical thinking.

HS 3300 Immunology (3 semester credit hours)
This course focuses on the basic concepts in immunology, and covers general properties of immune responses; cells and tissues of immune system; lymphocyte activation and specificity; effector mechanisms; immunity to microbes; immunodeficiency and AIDS; autoimmune diseases; transplantation. Course delivery is a blend of lecture and on line, self-paced activities.

HS 3310 Introduction to Quality in Healthcare (3 semester credit hours)
This course will provide an overview of the history, development and application of quality concepts. The components of quality management, quality assurance and quality control will be addressed through discussions and assignments on the history of quality, the different approaches to quality, such as Six Sigma and ISO standards, and how to define, implement and ensure compliance to the quality assurance and quality control process.

HS 3320 Medical Genetics (3 semester credit hours)
This course is a study of the role of genetics in medicine including: Mendelian genetics, multifactorial inheritance, DNA structure, chromosome structure, population genetics, mutation rates, ethnicity of disease and genetic mapping. A comprehensive review of the cell cycle, mitosis, and meiosis and pedigree analysis is incorporated as well.  

HS 3330 Pathology of Body Fluids (3 semester credit hours)
This course is a study of the anatomy and physiology of the kidney and the formation, elimination and composition of urine. Various body fluids (CSF, Synovial, Plural, Serous, etc.) will be study and associations made with various disease states. Interpretation of urinary and body fluids elements, chemical assays and the correlation with normal and abnormal physiology: Course delivery is a blend of lecture and on line, self-paced activities.  

HS 3333 Statistics (3 semester credit hours)
This course provides an introduction to statistical techniques. Emphasis will be placed on probability and probability distributions, sampling and descriptive measures, inference and hypothesis testing, linear regression, and analysis of variance. 
(Prerequisite HS 3101)

HS 3340 Research Methods (3 semester credit hours)
This research methods course will introduce the basic language and concepts of empirical research with emphasis on the applicability of research methodology in the area of clinical laboratory sciences.  Students will have the opportunity to learn how to search the peer-reviewed journal databases available to them through the Research Library. They will then critique and review their references, learn how to make an outline, and write a literature review on their assigned topic. Curriculum will include a blend of lectures, group work, presentations by guest researchers and development of a group research poster. (Admission to Program)

HS 3370 Fundamentals of Writing and Critical Thinking (3 semester credit hours)
This basic writing course stresses both reading and writing skills and is designed to teach students to improve their ability to write logically and develop short essays, brief formal summaries, and reports.

HS 4100 Issues in Health Care Ethics (1 semester credit hour)
This course content is designed to establish a foundation and set parameters of professional practice for health care professionals. The emphasis will be on developing the background for the resolution of ethical dilemmas through ethical reasoning, ethical obligations in health professional-patient relationships and just allocation of scarce health care resources.

HS 4101 Diversity and Cultural Competence (1 semester credit hour)
This course content is designed to create an awareness of ethnocentrism and a beginning understanding of cultural similarities and diversity. It provides the student with knowledge of the concepts of cultural relativity, cultural integration and variation in cultural values, organization and institutions.

HS 4111L Medical Microbiology Student Laboratory (1 semester credit hour)
The course utilizes biochemical, morphological, and serological techniques to illustrate concepts from the lecture course relating to microbial structure, metabolism, virulence, and transmission.  Students also receive instruction on proper technique and procedures for a number of different tests, including culturing, staining, carbohydrate utilization, immunoassays, and microscopy.

HS 4160 Critical Scientific Analysis (1 semester credit hour)
Students will analyze current scientific publications for research questions, hypothesis, study design and statistical analysis and the application of proper scientific formats in the clinical laboratory professions.  Students will complete pre-session assignments, participate in group discussion & present their group findings.

HS 4161 Seminar in Health Care (1 semester credit hour)
Seminar based course covering topics in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences

HS 4170 Special Topics I (1 semester credit hour)
A review of the principles of mathematics and statistics used in the clinical laboratories, this course presentation includes an introduction to the selection and operation of a laboratory information system.

HS 4300 Pathophysiology (3 semester credit hours)
This course is designed to provide basic knowledge in pathophysiology in preparation for professional studies in the health sciences. Topic covered includes central concepts of pathophysiology of the cells and tissues and alterations on organs and systems with an emphasis on carcinogenesis. Appropriate diagnostic and treatment procedures are covered.

HS 4310 Medical Microbiology (3 semester credit hours)
This course is the study of the utilization of morphological, biochemical, serological, disease inducing characteristics for microorganism, fungi, mycobacterium and virus identification. Course delivery a blend of lecture and on-line, self-paced activities.

HS 4371 Management and Education (3 semester credit hours)
This course covers laboratory management and educational methodologies. It includes management and motivational theories, communication skills, regulatory and accreditation requirements, budget and strategic planning, curriculum design and examination instruction.

Senior Year Course Descriptions

CT 4102 Theory and Practice of Cytopreparatory Techniques I (1 semester credit hour)
The course consists of the basic study and practice of techniques used for handling cytological specimen preparation and fixation and staining of specimens for cytological study, including compliance with laboratory safety, biohazard precautions and HPV testing.

CT 4111 Theory and Practice of Cytopreparatory Techniques II (1 semester credit hour)
The course consists of the advanced study and practice of techniques used for handling specimen preparation, fixation and staining of specimens for cytological study including compliance with laboratory safety and biohazard precautions. Special techniques include Thin-Prep processing, Autoctye preparation, Ficoll-Hypaque technique, cell block preparation and special stains (Gomori's methenamine silver and Diff-quick stains).

HS 3254 Immunohistochemistry (2 semester credit hours)
A comprehensive course that deals with the fundamentals of immunohistochemistry as applied to the theory and practical techniques in histopathology. The students acquire basic knowledge of how immunology is applied in the development of immunohistochemistry reagents and techniques. The course provides hands-on experience in performing immunohistochemistry staining procedures using different detection systems to localize and visualize reactions in histological and cytologic preparations. Emphasis will be placed on the clinical significance of diagnostic and prognostic indicators used in immunohistochemistry techniques. Troubleshooting and standardization of reagents are emphasized in this course.

HS 4300 Pathophysiology (3 semester credit hours)
This course is designed to provide basic knowledge in pathophysiology in preparation for professional studies in the health sciences. Topic covered includes central concepts of pathophysiology of the cells and tissues and alterations on organs and systems with an emphasis on carcinogenesis. Appropriate diagnostic and treatment procedures are covered.

HT 4141 Applied Chemistry - Laboratory Operations I (1 semester credit hour)
In this course, students will study the applications of laboratory operations. This course will review the metric system as utilized and applied to histotechnology. General staining considerations, decalcification, solution preparations and safety in the laboratory will be emphasized.

HT 4142 Applied Chemistry - Laboratory Operations II (1 semester credit hour)
This course is a continuation of HT 2141 with emphasis on the laboratory operations as applied to chemistry of special staining techniques in the microscopic identification of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, amyloid, pigments and minerals. Students will prepare reagents to use in performing these special staining techniques. Laboratory management principles will also be discussed.

HT 4312 Theory and Practice of Histotechniques I (3 semester credit hours)
This course consists of the principles of routine histologic techniques and the basic principles, components and use of instruments in the histopathology laboratory. The students will acquire basic knowledge in the theory of fixation and processing/embedding for routine tissue processing staining Students will also acquire basic knowledge in the theory and practical application of microtomy, cryosectioning, and routine staining. Students will learn to use various chemicals and equipment. Preventive maintenance, troubleshooting and comparison of types of equipment are also discussed. Principles and establishment of quality control methods and maintenance of records are presented. Current federal regulations dealing with accreditation of laboratories and safety procedures are also discussed.

HT4399 Special Topics in Histotechnology (3 semester credit hours)
This course consists of advanced level practicum project of selected  phases of tissue  embedding; cryosectioning;  microtomy; routine and special staining; and  immunohistochemistry. Emphasis will be placed on program capstone  review in preparation of the ASCP BOC examination. 

HT 4413 Theory and Practice of Histotechniques II (4 semester credit hours)
The course is a continuation of HT 4312, and consists of the principles of routine histologic techniques and the basic principles, components and use of instruments in the histopathology laboratory. The students will acquire intermediate to advanced knowledge in the theory of fixation and processing/embedding for routine tissue processing.  Students will also acquire intermediate to advanced knowledge in the theory and practical application of microtomy, cryoscectioning, and routine staining. Students will learn to use various chemicals and equipment. Preventive maintenance, troubleshooting and comparison of types of equipment are also discussed. Principles and establishment of quality control methods and maintenance of records are presented. Current federal regulations dealing with accreditation of laboratories and safety procedures are also discussed. 

HT 4444 Theory of Special Stains (4 semester credit hours)
This course studies the theory underlying the principles and techniques of special staining as applied to microscopic identification of connective tissue, muscle, neurological tissues, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, blood elements, pigments and minerals. The clinical significance of these stains in diagnoses will be discussed.

HT 4521 Histotechniques Laboratory Rotation I (5 semester credit hours)
This course consists of supervised beginning-level clinical practice in the histopathology student laboratories. Students will rotate through selected areas of the histopathology laboratory to include tissue processing, embedding, microtomy, routine and special staining.

HT 4522 Histotechniques Laboratory Rotation II (5 semester credit hours)
This course involves supervised intermediate-level clinical laboratory practice at MD Anderson and affiliate sites in selected areas of histopathology to include frozen sectioning, tissue processing and embedding, decalcification, transmission electron microscopy, microtomy and routine and special staining.

HT 4523 Histotechniques Laboratory Rotation III (5 semester credit hours)
This course involves supervised advanced-level clinical laboratory practice at affiliate sites in specialized areas of histopathology including frozen sectioning, special staining, in situ hybridization, microtissue arrays and cytotechnology.


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