Science Park in the News
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes regulate non-chromatin targets (3/15/15; 6/4/15)
Two recent studies by lead author Pabodh Kapoor, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Xuetong Shen's lab, have defined novels roles for chromatin remodelers. In the first study, Kapoor and collaborators from the laboratories of Drs. Guang Peng, Blaine Bartholomew and Jeff Ranish found that SWI/SNF, known to be important for remodeling chromatin, is also important for activating the DNA damage response. In a second study, published in Molecular Cell, Kapoor with collaborators from the laboratories of Drs. Guang Peng and Mark Bedford showed that the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex helps regulate a Rad53 mediated DNA damage checkpoint. These studies may lead to novel strategies to target DNA damage response and checkpoint proteins as well as chromatin remodeling pathways in cancer treatment
Role of SAGA, a histone acetylase complex, in reprogramming fibroblasts to a stem cell state defined (4/15/15)
A collaboration between Dr. Sharon Dent and Dr. Jeff Wrana at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, has shown that Myc drives expression of the SAGA component Gcn5. Together, Myc and Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase, reprogram fibroblasts to a stem cell state by activating an alternative splicing network. This collaboration also showed that Gcn5 is important for Myc-mediated stem cell self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. These findings raise the possibility that Myc-Gcn5 could also work together to promote tumor formation.
CARM 1 promotes nuclear export of special class of RNAs (3/15/15)
Assistant Professor Donghang Cheng, Ph.D. in Dr. Mark Bedford's group was the co-corresponding author on a study demonstrating that in the absence of the arginine methyltransferase CARM1, a certain class of protein encoding RNAs remain in the nucleus. These mRNAs, which contain inverted repeats of the short interspersed nuclear element Alu in their 3' untranslated regions (IRAlus), are retained in nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. CARM1 promotes their export from the nucleus via a dual mechanism.
YEATS protein potential therapeutic target for cancer (10/23/2014)
The Shi lab has found a new protein reader of modified proteins. The YEATS domain of AF9 recognizes acetylated histones. It was previously thought the only readers of acetyl groups were bromodomains. Bromodomains have long been a target of cancer therapuetic development, and the YEATS domain may now provide a new avenue for the development of future therapeutic targets.
Tumor-suppressor connects with histone protein to hinder gene expression (4/10/2014)
Dr. Hong Wen, an Assistant Professor in Xiaobing Shi's lab found that the protein ZMYND11 recognizes a special mark on another protein that helps package and protect DNA, the histone variant H3.3. When histone H3.3 is methylated, ZMYND11 recognizes and binds to the methylation mark to turn off a gene expression program that helps tumors grow.
Protein duo thwarts chromosomal scrambling and DNA breakage (2/11/2014)
A new study by Dr. Mark Bedford establishes a link between the TDRD3 protein and an enzyme that unwinds DNA at regions of active gene expression. The study provides evidence that this partnership can prevent DNA breakage and chromosomal translocations – two of the hallmarks of cancer.
Science Park Employees Walk Over 20,000 Miles as Part of Fitness Program (1/8/2014)
A group of 72 Science Park employees participated in Walk Across Texas, a program that encourages regular physical activity. The teams collectively walked a total of 20,970 miles over an 8-week period, far surpassing their goal of walking 830 miles – the distance between El Paso and Beaumont.
Dr. Dean Tang Receives Sanofi-Cell Research Outstanding Paper Award (11/04/2013)
Dr. Dean Tang of the Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis received the 2012 Sanofi-Cell Research Outstanding Review Article Award for his review paper entitled “Understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity and plasticity," published in March 2012. The article describes current research into the relationship between cancer cell heterogeneity and tumor development.
"Jekyll and Hyde" Protein Offers New Route to Cancer Drugs (09/27/2013)
Researchers in Dr. Mark Bedford's lab collaborated on a study that identified distinct types of arginine methylation marks on E2F-1, a protein with opposing roles in both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Because the growth-promoting "Mr. Hyde" version of E2F-1 is implicated in most cancers, blocking the switch to this form could provide a new target for cancer treatment.
Study Uncovers Actin's Action in the Nucleus (03/25/2013)
The function of nuclear actin has stumped scientists for several decades. In a study featured on the cover of Nature Structural Biology, investigators in Science Park faculty member Dr. Snow Shen's lab uncovered one of the protein's key nuclear functions.
Chromatin Gets a Makeover (01/31/2013)
Dr. Sharon Dent and Dr. David Johnson, faculty from the Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Center for Cancer Epigenetics, review a number of recent studies highlighting chromatin's role as both receiver and transmitter of signals in various cell functions.
Prostate Cancer Stem Cells Emerge from Low-PSA Cells (05/03/2012)
Science Park faculty member Dr. Dean Tang led a study that for the first time separated low-PSA and high-PSA prostate cancer cells, which led to the discovery of a low-PSA population of cancer stem cells that appears to be an important source of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
UT MD Anderson Scientists Discover Secret Life of Chromatin (08/30/2011)
A team of researchers directed by Dr. Sharon Dent, director of the Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Center for Cancer Epigenetics, investigate a signaling activity of chromatin that is independent of its central role in gene transcription.
UT MD Anderson Preclinical Research Boosts Case for New Drug Approach (01/16/2011)
A research team led by Dr. Dean Tang of Science Park reported that a microRNA inhibits prostate cancer metastasis by suppressing a surface protein commonly found on prostate cancer stem cells.
Researchers Find Melanoma Not Caused by Early UVA Light Exposure (05/2010)
Investigators from Dr. David Mitchell's lab at Science Park reported that early life exposure to ultraviolet A light does not cause melanoma in a fish model that previously made that connection.
Researchers in Dr. Xuetong Shen’s lab are using the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex in yeast as a model system to study the function of actin in the nucleus. They recently showed that actin monomers in the INO80 complex play a role in the process of chromatin remodeling – challenging the dogma that actin functions through polymerization, and revealing a novel mechanism for nuclear actin.