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Breast Cancer Diagnosis

At MD Anderson, we use leading-edge techniques to pinpoint the location and extent of breast cancer. Breast Center pathologists specialize in breast cancer, and they bring a remarkable level of skill to diagnosing each patient. This helps our experts tailor the most effective treatment for you.

Breast Cancer Diagnostic Tests

If you have symptoms that may signal breast cancer, your doctor will examine you and ask you questions about your health, your lifestyle, including smoking and drinking habits, and your family history.  One or more of the following tests may be used to find out if you have breast cancer and if it has spread.

Biopsy: A small sample of the suspicious area of the breast is removed for examination under a microscope. Biopsies for breast cancer may be done in one of the following ways:

Surgical biopsy: An incision (small cut) is made in the breast. Surgeons find the tumor by touch or with a CT (or CAT, computed axial tomography) scan, ultrasound or mammogram. In an excisional biopsy, the entire mass is removed. In an incisional biopsy, part of the tumor is removed.

Fine needle aspiration (FNA): A thin, hollow needle is inserted into the breast. Fluid and cells are removed from the tumor and looked at with a microscope. While this test can help to determine if breast cancer is present, it cannot determine if the cancer is invasive. Additional biopsies may be needed if breast cancer is found.

Core biopsy: A thicker needle is used to remove one or more small cylinder-shaped tissue samples from the tumor.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy: Lymph nodes are olive-sized glands that are part of the lymphatic system that circulates lymph fluid throughout the body. The lymphatic system also can carry cancer cells from the tumor site to other areas of the body. In breast cancer, the first nodes to be affected are under the arms.

In a sentinel lymph node biopsy, a radioactive blue dye is injected into the area before surgery. The dye shows up in cancerous lymph nodes. The node with the highest amount of blue dye is the “sentinel” node. The surgeon removes all nodes with blue dye.

Sentinel node biopsy can spare healthy lymph nodes, which results in fewer side effects such as lymphedema. MD Anderson has special expertise in this type of biopsy for breast cancer, which often helps preserve function and health.

Imaging tests, which may include:

  • CT or CAT (computed tomography) scan
  • Mammogram
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
  • Ultrasound

Getting a Second Opinion at MD Anderson

The experts at MD Anderson are highly specialized in diagnosing and staging every type of breast cancer. We welcome the opportunity to provide second opinions for breast cancer.

If you would like to get a second opinion at MD Anderson, call 1-877-632-6789 to make an appointment or request an appointment online.

Why Choose MD Anderson?

  • Advanced breast cancer treatments including targeted therapies, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and sentinel node biopsy
  • Least-invasive breast cancer procedures, including breast-sparing surgery
  • Range of breast reconstruction techniques
  • Genetic counseling for women at risk of breast cancer
  • Nationally known research program with numerous clinical trials, many not found elsewhere
  • Triple-negative breast cancer is part of MD Anderson's Moon Shots Program: an ambitious effort to reduce cancer deaths through the rapid discovery of new therapies

Breast Cancer Knowledge Center

Treatment at MD Anderson

Breast cancer is treated in our:

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Breast Cancer Stages

(source: National Cancer Institute)

Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ): Cancer has not spread from the site of origin. There are two types of breast carcinoma in situ:

  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive breast cancer and spread to other tissues.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast (where milk is made). This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. However, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

Stage I: Cancer has formed. The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has not spread outside the breast.

Stage IIA: No tumor is found in the breast. Breast cancer is found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm); or

  • The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes; or
  • The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

Stage IIB

  • The breast cancer tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes; or
  • The tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

Stage IIIA: No tumor is found in the breast. Breast cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures. Cancer may be found in lymph nodes near the breastbone; or

  • The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Breast cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures. Cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone; or
  • The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Breast cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures. Cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone; or
  • The tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Breast cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that may be attached to each other or to other structures. Cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.

Stage IIIB: The tumor may be any size and breast cancer:

  • Has spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast
  • May have spread to axillary lymph nodes that may be attached to each other or to other structures
  • May have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone

Stage IIIC: There may be no sign of cancer in the breast or the tumor may be any size and may have spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast. Breast cancer:

  • Has spread to lymph nodes above or below the collarbone
  • May have spread to axillary lymph nodes or to lymph nodes near the breastbone

Stage IIIC breast cancer is divided into operable and inoperable stages. In operable stage IIIC, the cancer is found in:

  • Ten or more axillary lymph nodes; or
  • Lymph nodes below the collarbone; or
  • Axillary lymph nodes and in lymph nodes near the breastbone

In inoperable stage IIIC breast cancer, the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes above the collarbone.

Stage IV: The cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver or brain.

If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer, we’re here to help. Call 1-877-632-6789 to make an appointment or request an appointment online.


© 2014 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center