Molecular Genetic Technology
Molecular genetic technologists study the role of genetics in medicine, Mendelian genetics, multifactorial inheritance, DNA structure, chromosome structure, population genetics, mutation rates, ethnicity of disease and genetic mapping.
Bachelor of Science in Molecular Genetic Technology
The Program is Administered by
Dean: Shirley Richmond, Ed.D.
Program Director: Peter Hu, Ph.D.
Education Coordinator: Irene Newsham, Ph.D.
Senior Health Professions Educator: Mary Coolbaugh-Murphy, Ph.D.
Senior Health Professions Educator: Vibuhti Srivastava, Ph.D.
Medical Advisor: Raja Luthra, Ph.D.
Visit the SHP Faculty page for a complete list of MGT and SHP faculty, staff, and adjuncts.
The Program in Molecular Genetic Technology
The MD Anderson Cancer Center Program in Molecular Genetic Technology, in conjunction with the mission and vision of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, is committed to the education of technically and academically competent graduates prepared to meet the immediate and future needs of the Molecular Genetic Technology profession.
The Molecular Genetic Technology program is designed to prepare students to become entry-level clinical molecular genetic technologists. The program provides instruction in major areas of the field such as:
- Pre- and Post-natal genetic disorder testing
- Cancer molecular genetic testing
- Infectious disease testing
- Human identity testing
The curriculum provides didactic training followed by directed clinical training at affiliated hospitals and laboratories. Students may enter the program to pursue a Bachelor of Science degree and program faculty help each student develop a focal point related to the learner's area of interest. In the course of their training, students learn how to detect DNA polymorphisms and interpret molecular tests. They also develop an understanding of the essential elements of statistics in population genetics.
While students study molecular diagnostic procedures such as SNP analysis and its application to the clinical laboratory, their laboratory experiences may include but are not limited to:
- Hybridization methods
- Extraction methods
- PCR, primer design and real-time PCR,RT-PCR, and Melt Curve Analysis
- Sequencing and fragment analysis
- Microarray technology
- Next generation sequencing
Students also focus on the specific applications of molecular techniques within such disciplines as:
- Genetic disease of inheritance
- Infectious disease
Professionals in the field have a wide range of career options. As the Human Genome Project leads to the discovery of an increasing number of genes important in human disease processes, molecular genetic technologists will play an ever-increasing role in diagnostic patient care.
Employment opportunities include:
- Cancer centers
- Pediatric clinics
- Chemical industries
- Biotechnology companies
- Research, molecular cytogenetic and pathology laboratories
- Computer imaging sales and development
- Research and teaching institutions
Some molecular genetic technologists combine administrative and managerial talent with their technical background to become laboratory or hospital administrators.
Admission is dependent on factors that include:
- Cumulative GPA, as well as Science and Math GPA
- Personal qualities such as maturity and professional goals as expressed in the interview and described in reference letters.
- Ability to meet the SHP non-academic technical standards.
- Race, religion, national origin, veteran status, gender, or disability are not factors considered in the selection process
Applicants should begin the application process three to six months prior to the application deadline to ensure all documents are received and processed by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Registrar's office
For a description of the non-academic technical standards requirements for admission, visit the admission section of the Student Catalog's Policies and Procedures.
Program Admission Requirements
The Bachelor of Science degree is either a one-year or two-year program with entry at either the junior or senior level. Application and supporting documents must be submitted to the Office of the Registrar. Qualified students are accepted on a rolling basis.
Applicants to the Program in Molecular Genetic Technology must satisfy the following requirements for admission:
All prerequisite course work must be from a regionally accredited college or university.
The applicant must have satisfactorily completed all prerequisite courses listed prior to graduating. These courses must be lecture and laboratory courses acceptable toward a degree by majors in those fields and cannot be survey courses.
Minimum overall grade point average of 2.5 on a 4.0 scale both overall and in science and mathematics courses is required to be considered for admission. Special circumstances may be considered, but at the discretion of the Admissions Committee.
Texas Success Initiative (TSI) - All applicants must provide proof of successful assessment of the Texas Success Initiative (TSI). Applicants who have graduated with an associate or baccalaureate degree from an accredited Texas College or University are exempt from TSI. Proof of an applicant's readiness to enroll in college level course work will be determined by the Registrar's Office based upon review of official transcripts from previously attended institutions.
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) - Applicants from countries where English is not the native language may be required to take the TOEFL. Internet based TOEFL is now available and a total test score ranging from 74-78 with a minimum score of 18 in each section is required.
Prerequisite information regarding the one-year and two-year programs is found on the SHP Prerequisite page.
The School of Health Professions accepts and/or awards credit through the following examination programs:
- College level examination program of the College Board
- Comprehensive departmental examinations
- Regionally accredited military training programs
Recommendations from the School's academic departments are followed with regard to minimum score requirements, level of credit and amount of credit to be awarded. Program faculty are consulted to determine if credit recommendations equate to specific School of Health Professions (SHP) courses. The internal comprehensive departmental examination program provides a local means for establishing knowledge of SHS course content in areas not covered by the above examination program. Programs may elect to administer examinations that cover material specific to SHS courses with the results being reported to the Registrar.
Each candidate for a baccalaureate degree must complete a minimum of 135 semester credit hours of course work. Within this requirement, students must complete the following at MD Anderson:
- At least 40 semester credit hours of advanced (3000/4000) course work
- At least 25% of the total semester credit hours required must be taken at MD Anderson
Graduation occurs in August. Upon graduation, students are eligible to take the national certification exam in molecular biology given by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP)
Please check with the program director for application deadlines and exam dates. Upon passing the exam, the student is considered a certified molecular genetic technologist. The awarding of the degree is not contingent upon a student passing the national certification exam.
This intensive two-year program is composed of a didactic phase followed by directed clinical training at affiliated hospitals and laboratories. During the didactic phase, formal lectures are presented on the principles of medical genetics, molecular and biochemical basis of genetic disease, hematology, molecular biology, clinical molecular genetics and molecular genetic technology. Laboratory sessions coordinated to lectures and covering the fundamentals of diagnostic laboratory procedures are included in the didactic phase..
During the clinical phase of instruction, training and supervision are provided in affiliated clinical laboratories:
- UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (Diagnostic Molecular Science Laboratory), Houston, TX
- UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (HLA Laboratory), Houston, TX
- UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (DNA Analysis Core Facility), Houston, TX
- Baylor College of Medicine (Diagnostic Sequencing Laboratory), Houston
- Baylor College of Medicine (Microarray Laboratory), Houston, TX
- Baylor College of Medicine (Mitochondria Laboratory), Houston, TX
- Baylor College of Medicine (John Walsh Cardiovascular Diagnostic Laboratory), Houston, TX
- Baylor College of Medicine (Whole Genome Sequencing Laboratory), Houston, TX
- Center for Medical Genetics, Houston, TX
- De Novo Diagnostics, Houston, TX
- Ben Taub Hospital (Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory) Harris County Hospital District, Houston,TX
- Gene by Gene (FTDNA/DNATraits - Sequencing, NGS and Microarray Laboratory), Houston, TX
- Texas Children's Hospital (Molecular Pathology Laboratory), Houston, TX
- The Methodist Hospital (Clinical Laboratory Medicine), Houston, TX
- Applied Diagnostic Laboratory, Houston, TX
- Gulf Coast Regional Blood Center, Houston, TX
- Companion DX, Houston, TX
- MolecularHealth, The Woodlands, TX
- Clinical Pathology Laboratories, Inc. (Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory), Austin, TX
- UT Medical Branch in Galveston (Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory), Galveston, TX
- UTHSC San Antonio (Molecular Pathology Laboratory), San Antonio, TX
- Delta Pathology Group, LLC. (Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory), Shreveport, LA
- Massachusetts General Hospital – Harvard University Medical School (Department of Pathology), Boston, MA
- Duke University (Department of Pathology), Durham, NC
- Emory University (Department of Human Genetics), Atlanta, GA
- Oklahoma State Department of Health, Oklahoma City, OK
- Greenwood Genetics Laboratory, Greenwood, SC
- The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (Department of Genetics), Philadelphia, PA
- The University of Chicago (Department of Human Genetics), Chicago, IL
- Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
- Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Bronx, NY
- Quest Diagnostics (Molecular Oncology Laboratory), Chantilly, VA
- ARUP Laboratories (Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory), Salt Lake City, UT
- Propath, Dallas, TX
- Orchid Cellmark, Dallas, TX
- Queens Medical Center, Honolulu, HI
The Molecular Genetic Technology program is accredited by and has conformed its curriculum to the standards published and monitored by:National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS)
5600 N. River Rd., Ste 720
Rosemont, IL 60018-5119
|Junior Year Courses||30 SCH|
|Laboratory Sciences: shared core courses||8|
|HS 3102 Molecular Techniques Lab||1|
|HS 3210 Laboratory Mathematics||2|
|HS 4310 Medical Microbiology||3|
|HS 4100 Issues in Health Care Ethics||1|
|HS 4101 Diversity and Cultural Competence||1|
|MGT Program Core||20|
|HS 3201 Molecular Biology||2|
|HS 3203 Basic Molecular Techniques Laboratory II||2|
|HS 3270 Critical Thinking in Health Professions||2|
|HS 3254 Immunohistochemistry||2|
|HS 3320 Medical Genetics||3|
|HS 3300 Immunology||3|
|HS 3330 Pathology of Body Fluids||3|
|HS 4300 Pathophysiology||3|
|MGT Program Electives; choose 2 SCH from:||2|
|DI 4310 Teaching Strategies in Health Care Education||3|
|HS 3110 Medical Terminology||1|
|HS 3333 Statistics||3|
|HS 3340 Research Methods||3|
|HS 3370 Fundamentals of Writing and Critical Thinking||3|
|HS 4111L Medical Microbiology Lab||1|
|HS 4160 Critical Scientific Analysis||1|
|HS 4161 Seminar in Healthcare||1|
|Senior Year Courses *||46 SCH|
|CC 4120 Introduction to G-band Karyotyping||1|
|GT 4300 Advanced Medical Genetics||3|
|GT 4330 Genetics of Hematological Disease||3|
|HS 4110 Intro to Clinical Molecular Genetics Technology||1|
|HS 4371 Management and Education||3|
|MG 4160 Genetic Technology Journal Club||1|
|MG 4280 Concepts in Molecular Diagnostics||2|
|MG 4290 Clinical Applications of Molecular Biology||2|
|MG 4300 Bioinformatics in Diagnostic Genetics I||3|
|MG 4301 Bioinformatics in Diagnostic Genetics II||3|
|MG 4310 Molecular Diagnostic Techniques||3|
|MG 4320 Advanced Concepts in Molecular Genetics||3|
|MG 4390 Advanced Molecular Diagnostic Techniques||3|
|MG 4510 Molecular Diagnostic Techniques Lab||5|
|MG 4560 Molecular Diagnostics Clinical Rotation I||5|
|MG 4570 Molecular Diagnostics Clinical Rotation II||5|
* Students entering the School of Health Professions for the first time at the Senior level must take the following additional required courses that are described in the Junior Year for Laboratory Sciences section of the catalog:
- HS 4100 Issues in Health Care Ethics
- HS 4101 Diversity and Cultural Competence
Junior Lab Sciences HS series classes with some exceptions
DI 4310 Teaching Strategies in Health Care Education (3 SCH)
This course will teach the student how to analyze learning theories with emphasis on adult learners and the elements of quality education.
HS 3102 Basic Molecular Techniques Laboratory I (1 SCH)
This course serves a dual purpose in solidifying the basic laboratory fundamentals before introducing the student to the basic techniques of the molecular lab. First, the student is provided with a practical foundation in proper laboratory safety practices, pipetting, micropipetting, serial dilution and solution preparation before introducing them to the basic molecular techniques of genomic DNA extraction, quantitation, and gel electrophoresis. Also included in this course are various applications related to other laboratory science disciplines such as basic microscopy, slide preparation, Hematological cell identification, as well as an introduction to karyotyping and commercial FISH. Effectively, the student sees a more comprehensive introduction to the basic lab with an emphasis on those bench skills foundational to performing the most basic techniques of the molecular lab.
(Admission to Program)
HS 3110 Medical Terminology (1 SCH)
An introduction to medical terminology. Emphasis on word roots, prefixes, suffixes, spelling and analysis of unfamiliar terms. Additional background information on the anatomy that relates to various body systems will be discussed.
HS 3120 Introduction to Cytogenetics (1 SCH)
A detailed study of human G-banded chromosomes. Includes instruction in banding pattern recognition and polymorphic variation. Includes classroom instruction and hands-on experience.
HS 3201 Molecular Biology (2 SCH)
This course covers the principals behind basic molecular techniques used in a clinical molecular laboratory. This may include but not limited to DNA extraction, quantitation, gel electrophoresis, and PCR.
HS 3203 Basic Molecular Techniques Laboratory II (2 SCH)
A continuation of the HS3102 Basic Molecular Techniques Laboratory I course where basic techniques introduced in the previous course are reinforced and built upon through an objective based approach schema in which students presented with a scenario simulating either the clinical or research molecular lab are required to process samples from receipt to report. At the bench, students learn the effective organizational and technical skills for processing multiple samples for gDNA extraction from a variety of specimen types, DNA quantitation, PCR amplification, gel electrophoresis, and proper visualization and documentation of results. There is a greater focus on carrying out experimental objectives in accordance with proper quality assurance and quality control guidelines while placing a stronger emphasis on delivering timely, accurate, and reproducible results. Proper documentation habits are adhered throughout the experimental process from sample receipt to final analysis and reporting of experimental results. Also included in this course are further applications in the molecular lab such as RNA isolation, purification and re-isolation techniques for limited samples, introduction to Real-Time (qPCR), PCR troubleshooting basics, restriction digestion and restriction mapping, as well as an introduction to molecular cloning. Effectively, the student solidifies a very strong foundation in all the basic techniques of the molecular lab with an introduction to those further applications that will be reinforced and built upon in the Senior Year.
HS 3210 Laboratory Math (2 SCH)
The basic principles and theory of clinical, biochemical, and analytical laboratory math related calculations. It includes basic operations such as problem solving using percentiles, rates, ratios, mole ratios, molality, pH, conversions, solving for proportions and more.
HS 3254 Immunohistochemistry (2 SCH)
A comprehensive course that deals with the fundamentals of immunohistochemistry as applied to the theory and practical techniques in histopathology. The students acquire basic knowledge of how immunology is applied in the development of immunohistochemistry reagents and techniques. Emphasis will be placed on the clinical significance of diagnostic and prognostic indicators used in immunohistochemistry techniques. Troubleshooting and standardization of reagents are emphasized.
HS 3270 Critical Thinking in Health Professions (2 SCH)
This course is designed to provide health professions students with resources for improving critical thinking skills. The course will introduce basic concepts of critical thinking through integration into interactive case studies, problem based scenarios, and project design assignments. The specific objectives of this course coincide with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center School of Health Professions' definition of critical thinking.
HS 3300 Immunology (3 SCH)
This course focuses on the basic concepts in immunology, and covers general properties of immune responses; cells and tissues of immune system; lymphocyte activation and specificity; effector mechanisms; immunity to microbes; immunodeficiency and AIDS; autoimmune diseases; transplantation. Course delivery is a blend of lecture and on line, self-paced activities.
HS 3320 Medical Genetics (3 SCH)
This course is a study of the role of genetics in medicine including: Mendelian genetics, multifactorial inheritance, DNA structure, chromosome structure, population genetics, mutation rates, ethnicity of disease and genetic mapping. A comprehensive review of the cell cycle, mitosis, and meiosis and pedigree analysis is incorporated as well.
(Admission to Program)
HS 3330 Pathology of Body Fluids (3 SCH)
This course is a study of the anatomy and physiology of the kidney and the formation, elimination and composition of urine. Various body fluids (CSF, Synovial, Plural, Serous, etc.) will be study and associations made with various disease states. Interpretation of urinary and body fluids elements, chemical assays and the correlation with normal and abnormal physiology: Course delivery is a blend of lecture and on line, self-paced activities.
(Admission to Program)
HS 3333 Statistics (3 SCH)
This course provides an introduction to statistical techniques. Emphasis will be placed on probability and probability distributions, sampling and descriptive measures, inference and hypothesis testing, linear regression, and analysis of variance.
(Prerequisite HS 3101)
HS 3340 Research Methods (3 SCH)
This research methods course will introduce the basic language and concepts of empirical research with emphasis on the applicability of research methodology in the area of clinical laboratory sciences. Students will have the opportunity to learn how to search the peer-reviewed journal databases available to them through the Research Library. They will then critique and review their references, learn how to make an outline, and write a literature review on their assigned topic. Curriculum will include a blend of lectures, group work, presentations by guest researchers and development of a group research poster. (Admission to Program)
HS 3370 Fundamentals of Writing and Critical Thinking (3 SCH)
This basic writing course stresses both reading and writing skills and is designed to teach students to improve their ability to write logically and develop short essays, brief formal summaries, and reports.
HS 4100 Issues in Health Care Ethics (1 SCH)
This course content is designed to establish a foundation and set parameters of professional practice for health care professionals. The emphasis will be on developing the background for the resolution of ethical dilemmas through ethical reasoning, ethical obligations in health professional-patient relationships and just allocation of scarce health care resources.
HS 4101 Diversity and Cultural Competence (1 SCH)
This course content is designed to create an awareness of ethnocentrism and a beginning understanding of cultural similarities and diversity. It provides the student with knowledge of the concepts of cultural relativity, cultural integration and variation in cultural values, organization and institutions.
HS 4111L Medical Microbiology Student Laboratory (1 SCH)
The course utilizes biochemical, morphological, and serological techniques to illustrate concepts from the lecture course relating to microbial structure, metabolism, virulence, and transmission. Students also receive instruction on proper technique and procedures for a number of different tests, including culturing, staining, carbohydrate utilization, immunoassays, and microscopy.
HS 4160 Critical Scientific Analysis (1 SCH)
Students will analyze current scientific publications for research questions, hypothesis, study design and statistical analysis and the application of proper scientific formats in the clinical laboratory professions. Students will complete pre-session assignments, participate in group discussion & present their group findings.
HS 4161 Seminar in Health Care (1 SCH)
Seminar based course covering topics in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences
HS 4300 Pathophysiology (3 SCH) SENIOR YEAR
This course is designed to provide basic knowledge in pathophysiology in preparation for professional studies in the health sciences. Topic covered includes central concepts of pathophysiology of the cells and tissues and alterations on organs and systems with an emphasis on carcinogenesis. Appropriate diagnostic and treatment procedures are covered.
HS 4310 Medical Microbiology (3 SCH) SENIOR YEAR
This course is the study of the utilization of morphological, biochemical, serological, disease inducing characteristics for microorganism, fungi, mycobacterium and virus identification. Course delivery a blend of lecture and on-line, self-paced activities.
HS 4371 Management and Education (3 SCH)
This course covers laboratory management and educational methodologies. Students will learn the importance of educational objectives, communication skills, roles and responsibilities of management, regulatory and accreditation such as CAP and CLIA, and professionalism in the clinical laboratory and radiologic sciences. The contents are delivered online and are self-directed.
Senior Year Course Descriptions (for Senior Year HS courses, please see above)
CC 4120 Introduction to G-band Karyotyping (1 SCH)
A detailed study of human G-banded chromosomes. Includes instruction in banding pattern recognition, polymorphic variation, determination of band level and the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN). Includes classroom instruction and hands-on experience.
GT 4300 Advanced Medical Genetics (3 SCH)
A general look at the eukaryotic chromosome and their changes, gene regulation, somatic mutation and genetics of cancer, evolution at the molecular level, system biology and the future of medicine.
GT 4330 Genetics of Hematological Disease (3 SCH)
This course is a comprehensive study of the principles and procedures used in the cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood and bone marrow in the study of malignant processes, especially hematological ones. The course emphasizes the chromosome abnormalities and the affected gene/s occurring in leukemias and lymphomas and their clinical significance.
HS 4110 Intro to Clinical Molecular Genetics Technology (1 SCH)
The study of clinical laboratory molecular diagnostic procedures utilizing recombinant DNA technology and its application to the many aspects of the clinical laboratory.
MG 4160 Genetic Technology Journal Club (1 SCH)
Seminar-based course that covers topics in genetics and related fields.
MG 4280 Concepts in Molecular Diagnostics (2 SCH)
The focus of this course is on the role of genetics in medicine and related molecular testing methodologies. The course aims to highlight the importance of genetics and its role in disease by providing a link between disease diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and treatment with molecular testing options and applications through case-based analysis. Topics may include diseases or disorders in the area of oncology, inherited, and infectious disease.
MG 4300 Bioinformatics in Diagnostic Genetics I (2 SCH)
This course will introduce the students to the clinical applications of information technology and computer-based science. Students will learn how to access, manage, and analyze biological information using computer applications for purposes such as obtaining biological sequences and performing clinical research and development, assay design, and data analysis.
MG 4301 Bioinformatics in Diagnostic Genetics II (2 SCH)
This course will be a continuation of Bioinformatics in Diagnostic Genetics I. The course will build upon the information learned in the first course with more application. Students will learn more about clinical applications as they apply to Next Generation Sequencing, by observing, managing, aligning, and annotating data. Students will learn how to access and manage computer applications to determine the clinical implications and significance of the data as they apply to human genomics.
MG 4231 Independent Research Project II (WR) (2 SCH)
Continuation of an independent study that may be a case study analysis, laboratory test procedure evaluation or investigation of a laboratory problem. This is an intensive writing course requiring producing a written paper, a poster and an oral presentation.
MG 4280 Concepts in Molecular Diagnostics (2 SCH)
An advanced study of the role of genetics in medicine, Mendelian genetics, multifactorial inheritance, DNA structure, chromosome structure, population genetics, mutation rates, ethnicity of disease and genetic mapping. A comprehensive review of the cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and pedigree analysis is incorporated as well.
MG 4290 Clinical Applications of Molecular Biology (2 SCH)
Focuses on the specific applications of molecular techniques within a variety of disciplines. The disciplines covered include cytogenetics, hemostasis, hematology, immunology, infectious diseases, forensic science, oncology, paternity and transplantation immunology. The course will provide hands-on, introductory laboratory experience with some of these techniques and participants will develop a focal problem of interest towards their research project.
MG 4310 Molecular Diagnostic Techniques (3 SCH)
This course will provide participants with a didactic understanding of laboratory processes and procedures. The topics covered may include information related to sample storage and transport requirements for integrity, purpose of reagents and parameters used in molecular applications, and theoretical understanding of platform methodologies, data analysis, and troubleshooting.
MG 4320 Advanced Concepts in Molecular Genetics (3 SCH)
This lecture/laboratory course will introduce the student to human identity testing. The course provides an application of skills such as extraction, amplification, quantitation, capillary electrophoresis, fragment analysis, and population genetics for forensic DNA analysis and / or paternity testing.
MG 4390 Advanced Molecular Diagnostic Techniques (3 SCH)
This lecture/laboratory course focuses on the specific applications of newer molecular techniques. Participants will have hands-on experience which may include Real Time PCR using various detection methods, microarray technology, sequencing, blotting,HLA and molecular flow cytometry.
MG 4560 Molecular Diagnostic Clinical Rotation I (5 SCH)
This clinical laboratory rotation includes the study of molecular diagnostic procedures utilizing recombinant DNA technology and its application to the many aspects of the clinical laboratory. Laboratory experiences include DNA specimen handling and processing, DNA extraction, DNA purification, Southern blot analysis, probe preparation and utilization, PCR, primer design and Real-Time PCR.
MG 4570 Molecular Diagnostic Clinical Rotation II (5 SCH)
This clinical laboratory rotation is a continuation of MG 4560. This clinical laboratory rotation may include the study of molecular diagnostic procedures utilizing recombinant DNA technology and its application to the many aspects of the clinical laboratory. Laboratory experiences may include DNA specimen handling and processing, DNA extractions, DNA purification, Southern blot analysis, probe preparation and utilization, PCR, primer design and Real-Time PCR.
MG 4510 Molecular Diagnostic Techniques Lab (5 SCH)
The course will provide participants with hands-on laboratory experience in: performing molecular techniques such as DNA extraction, purification and quantification; preparing and viewing gel electrophoresis; conducting PCR and Real-Time PCR experiments; and designing primers and performing Sanger sequencing with assay optimization and troubleshooting.