Skip to Content

Glossary of Cancer Terms

Numbers

10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate TPA. A substance being studied in the treatment of hematologic cancers. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called TPA.

126–F A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126–F have been tested, and none of them has been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126–F is not available in the United States. Also called Entelev, Sheridan's Formula, Jim's Juice, Crocinic Acid, Cancell, JS–114, JS–101 and Cantron.

13-cis retinoic acid A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.

131I-MIBG Iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine. A radioactive substance that is used in imaging tests, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

17-AAG 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin.

17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin 17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.

17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin 17-AAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. Also called 17-AAG.

18F-EF5 A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.

1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging A noninvasive imaging method that provides information about cellular activity (metabolic information). It is used along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides information about the shape and size of the tumor (spacial information). Also called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

2-methoxyestradiol 2ME2. A drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow. It is derived from estrogen and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.

2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone 3-AP. A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-AP and Triapine.

3-AP 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone. A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and Triapine.

3-D 3-dimensional. A graphic display of depth, width and height. Also called 3-dimensional.

3-dimensional 3-D. A graphic display of depth, width and height. Also called 3-D.

3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional radiation therapy.

3-dimensional radiation therapy A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy.

3F8 A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.

4-demethoxydaunorubicin A drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. Also called idarubicin.

4-hydroxytamoxifen A form of the drug tamoxifen that is made by the body after taking tamoxifen. It can also be made in the laboratory, and may help decrease breast density. A topical form of 4-hydroxytamoxifen is being studied in breast cancer screening.

4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide 4-NQO. A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-NQO.

4-NQO 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

5-FU A drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called fluorouracil.

5-HT3 receptor antagonist 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist. A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It belongs to the family of drugs called antiemetics. Also called type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5HIAA. A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

5-hydroxytryptamine A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called serotonin.

5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It belongs to the family of drugs called antiemetics. Also called type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.

506U78 A drug used to treat certain types of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called nelarabine and Arranon.

5Q minus syndrome 5Q- syndrome. A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q- syndrome.

5Q- syndrome 5Q minus syndrome. A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q minus syndrome.

6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene A substance that is used in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Also called irofulven.

852A A substance being studied in the treatment of certain adult and childhood blood cancers and other types of cancer. 852A may help the patient's immune system block tumor growth. It is a type of immune system modulator.

9-cis retinoic acid A substance being studied in the prevention of cancer. It is a type of retinoid.

90Y-DOTA-biotin A radioactive substance (yttrium-90) joined by a large chemical link (DOTA) to biotin, a vitamin.

Contact Us

Appointments available
Questions? Need help?

Call askMDAnderson

1-877-632-6789

Find Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that test new cancer drugs, diagnostic procedures and therapies on humans.


© 2014 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center