Healing Touch Detailed Scientific Review
"Healing Touch" is an energy-based therapy that was developed in the early 1980s by Janet Mentgen, RN. Mentgen studied with a variety of healers and developed the program out of both her clinical practice and teaching experience within a nursing curriculum1,2. The program of study that she developed incorporates a number of different techniques for specific purposes to facilitate a person’s self-healing. Physical or mental disease is understood as imbalances or disharmony within the client’s energy field3,4 that may be rebalanced, partially corrected or accepted through interactions with the energy fields of another person4.
Typical sessions last from 30-45 minutes, but a full hour is recommended so that the session can include discussion of the client’s health concerns before the intervention and reactions after the actual intervention. These sessions may or may not involve light physical touch with the client. The client can be fully clothed and either sitting or lying down with a sheet or blanket for comfort. A massage table can also be used. The practitioner centers her/himself, "attunes" to the client perhaps by placing hands on the client, and assesses the client’s energy field by passing his/her hands several inches over the entire length of their body. Based upon this assessment, the practitioner then chooses energy techniques believed to be beneficial. Clients are advised that feedback is welcome or they may remain quiet or discontinue the session at any time. The practitioner continually reassesses the client’s physical indicators, such as rate of breathing, depth of breathing, appearance of the client’s eyes and skin tone3,4.
Although Healing Touch has its roots in nursing, its program of study leading to certification is not limited to nurses. Level I training includes a minimum 16 hours of instruction in the basics of chakra energy concepts assessment of the energy field, centering techniques, intervention techniques for stress, pain and balancing and principles of self-healing. Level 2 includes a minimum of 15 hours in healing sequences for specific client needs and skills in therapeutic interactions. Level 3 is also a minimum of 16 hours and includes additional back techniques, and upper level techniques Levels 4 and 5 are educational sessions, with a one-year course of study in between, plus case studies, mentoring, ethics, client/practitioner relationship, establishment of a practice and integration of activities within the health community. Certification is administered by a non-profit education corporation, Healing Touch International, Inc.1,5,6.
Proposed Mechanism of Action of Healing Touch
The precise mechanisms by which Healing Touch may affect symptom management are unknown. It has been postulated that energy fields are in constant interaction within and without the physical body so those within the body may be stimulated by movement of this energy7. It is also believed that the molecular arrangement of the body is a complex network of interwoven energy fields that can be nourished and affected by emotions, level of spiritual balance, nutrition and environment1. Practitioners of Healing Touch seek to facilitate the client’s own self-healing process believing that this enables the client to gain a new perspective through awareness, appraisal, choosing, accepting and alignment4.
Trauma release is addressed within an advanced course within Healing Touch study. Developed in consultation with a licensed psychologist, Paul Hanson, PhD, its goals are to free the physical memory of traumatic events8.
Adverse Effects of Healing Touch
No adverse effects have been identified in the literature.
Studies of effectiveness among people with cancer have been identified in the peer-reviewed published literature. Studies among persons with conditions that may have relevance to those with cancer are described in the Summary of Research.
Summary of Research
Amount and Type of Research
A search of the literature between October 1, 2003, and April 31, 2006, for the terms "Healing Touch" identified five articles on Medline, four on CINAHL (not counting duplicates). Only two articles mentioned studies with cancer patients. One showed improvement in well being9. Another measured physical endpoints (i.e., vitals and reporting of pain) after healing touch application and results indicated lowered pulse rate, blood pressure rates and self-reporting of decrease in pain10.
In past reviews, three articles mentioned patients with cancer: one was a survey of general CAM use among patients with cancer participating in clinical trials11, one was a study of the effectiveness of Healing Touch for caregivers of patients with cancer12 and one was a case report of energy healing and touch in a patient with cancer13, but this was not specifically "Healing Touch". Dissertations and other unpublished studies as listed on the website for Healing Touch International6 have not been included in this or any of the other reviews on this web site. Dissertations and other unpublished studies as listed on the Web site for Healing Touch International6 have not been included in this or any of the other reviews on this website.
Although benefits have been reported for individuals with cancer7, these have not been independently verified in the peer-reviewed literature. Accordingly, it is not possible to draw any conclusions concerning effectiveness of any outcomes among patients with cancer.
Six studies with potential relevance for patients with cancer were identified and reviewed. One of three randomized controlled trials evaluated 29 patients receiving Healing Touch and 26 patients in a control group who were receiving standard hospice care. According to quality of life scores on the Missoula VITAS Index, both groups experienced declines in physical functioning over time, but those who received Healing Touch had less dramatic declines and received some moderation of their physical symptoms. Other quality of life items either did not differ or were slightly lower for those who received Healing Touch14. As described, these results were mixed and their statistical significance was not reported and may not have been feasible in this situation.
The second randomized controlled trial evaluated 60 women scheduled for hysterectomies. Three equal groups were assigned to three days of post-operative treatment with either "relaxation touch" (according to Healing Touch principles), or the investigator’s presence plus a 20-minute traditional back massage with massage oil or no treatment with no presence from the investigator. The group receiving "relaxation touch" had "earlier recovery" than either of the two other groups after one treatment (P<0.01), two treatments (P<0.0001) and three treatments (P<0.01). However, no significant differences occurred in vital signs, bowel treatments or narcotics used15. Publication of this report was only in abstract form so questions about design and evaluation could not be addressed.
The third randomized controlled trial evaluated 170 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for unstable coronary syndromes. They were randomly assigned to five pre-intention groups: standard therapy, prayer (double-blinded), stress relaxation, touch and imagery. Outcomes were assessed through non-invasive electronic monitoring provided continuous assessment of procedure outcomes during hospitalization, follow-up clinic appointments and phone calls six months following the procedure. No significant differences occurred in total ischemia, heart rate variability or other clinical outcomes. However, when prayer, stress relaxation, touch and imagery were combined into one "noetic" treatment group, there was a 25% to 30% reduction in adverse clinical outcomes (statistical significance not reported). However, all of the mortality also occurred in this combined group, a statistically non-significant difference (P=0.12).
One non-randomized prospective controlled study evaluated effects of 30-minute sessions (twice a week for three weeks) of Healing Touch, massage therapy or usual nursing care-support for 36 caregivers of patients with cancer. Significant declines in anxiety and depression occurred, but only for the group that received massage12.
Another study used a cross-over design to evaluate immune and stress reduction effects in a series of 22 people acting as "self controls". Healing Touch alone was compared to Healing Touch plus music and guided imagery. Post-treatment stress reductions and relaxation responses occurred that were significantly different from pretest ratings for sessions with Healing Touch (p£0.0003) or Healing Touch plus music and guided imagery (p£0.0003). The most prevalent theme identified in qualitative analysis of comments was relaxation. Significant differences were not detected, however, between secretory Immunoglobulin A (SigA) levels before and after any of these individual sessions. Significant interactions did appear to have occurred between SigA levels and the practitioner’s level of training (p=.021), but baseline significant differences in placebo response tendencies may have influenced this interaction. This study was also underpowered to detect differences (observed power = 0.746) and the variance (standard deviation) to be expected in SigA levels was never addressed3. Accordingly, it is not possible to draw any conclusions concerning immune effects from this study.
Another prospective study of "self-controls" evaluated the effects of specific Healing Touch procedures for trauma release among 10 student volunteers with chronic pain persisting after accidents that had occurred years in the past. One month following the demonstration, four students no longer had pain, two had less pain, two had pain that returned after an initial decrease and two reported no change8. Given the challenges of interrupting chronic pain, even some positive results such as these indicate a need for further study with larger trials that are controlled and blinded.
In addition to relaxation, Janet Mentgen, RN, the founder of Healing Touch, stated that Healing Touch could be used to increase focus, relieve the pain of arthritic joints, break up congestion and aid in the healing of fractured bones, tendonitis and tumors1. Although benefits have been reported in these areas for individual patients5, no studies have been documented in the published peer-reviewed literature. (One study of arthritis with "Healing Touch" in the title was actually about massage16.)
Brief details of the six studies with potential relevance to patients with cancer are provided in the Summary Table for Human Studies and in the Annotated Bibliography.
9Cook CA, Guerrerio JF, Slater VE. Healing Touch and Quality of Life in Women Receiving Radiation Treatment for Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial 2004; 10(3):34-40.
Purpose: Improve quality of life
Type of Study: Two-arm single-blind randomized controlled trial
Methods: Women newly diagnosed with gynecological or breast cancer receiving radiation therapy at large Midwestern university-affiliated hospital (end-stage cancer patients with likelihood of rapid deterioration were excluded, as well as those with past experiences with Healing Touch or impaired mental status). Out of 234 originally screened, 156 were excluded (146 refused; 10 didn’t meet criteria), with the remaining 78 randomized into either the healing touch group (HT) (provided by Level II certified Healing Touch providers) or the mock treatment group (MT) (provided by lay people with no previous training or knowledge of Healing Touch). Of those, 16 had their intervention discontinued (There were almost no significant differences in discontinuation between groups reported except for a higher level of education reported in those who had completed as opposed to those who had not completed the trial. In addition, a significant number of women with gynecological cancer dropped out of the study as opposed to women with breast cancer.) due to a range of reasons such as severe illness, religious objections, family problems.
An opaque screen was placed between the patient’s head and body so they could not see who was providing treatment or see how it was being given. No significant differences between the groups in regards to their perceived assigned group were found. In the mock treatment, the lay people were told they could walk around the patient but with hands to their sides and to not focus on the subjects and think of mathematics instead. Six Healing Touch or mock treatments were given as well as their usual medical and nursing services (First treatment was as patients had completed no more than one third of their radiation treatments, weekly treatments after that with the sixth treatment four weeks after completing radiation.). The treatments were given immediately after radiation treatments for 30 minutes. Each patient had multiple providers of healing touch. Quality control review of video recordings of 10 randomly selected sessions in the HT and MT groups revealed no violations with protocol.
Results: Subjects who received Healing Touch demonstrated better Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Statistically significant differences were seen between the two groups in the SF-36 scores under the categories of vitality (p<.03), pain (p<.02) and physical functioning (p<.05). Vitality included perceived levels of energy and pep, as well as feelings of being tired and worn-out. Within group changes in the HT group SF-36 scores were statistically significant overall (p<.00) but most especially emotional role functioning (p<.00), mental health (p<.03) and health transition (p<.00). In the MT within group SF-36 scores, no significant changes were seen, except in the categories of physical role functioning (p<.00) and health transition (p<.01). Of note, is that physical role functioning sub-scores were not significant within the HT group.
13Post-White J, Kinney ME, Savik K, Gau JB, Wicox C, Lerner I. Therapeutic Massage and Healing Touch Improve Symptoms in Cancer 2003; 2(4):332-344.
Purpose: Symptom management and improved quality of life
Type of Study: Randomized, prospective, two-period crossover design
Methods: Cancer patients currently receiving chemotherapy with an identical repeating cycle for two or more remaining cycles and a pain, nausea or fatigue rating of 3 or more on 10-pt scales were recruited from two outpatient Midwestern chemotherapy clinics. Five hundred forty-nine patients were screened, 319 declined and the remaining 42% (230) were randomized into one of three groups:
- Therapeutic massage (MT)
- Healing touch (HT)
- Caring presence (P).
There was a 29% attrition rate with a larger number of patients dropping from the P study group leaving 164 (63 MT, 56 HT, 45 P) to finish all eight sessions. There were no major differences in diagnosis, time from diagnosis and or time from first chemotherapy between those that dropped and those that stayed in. Demographic characteristics were also similar. There was a trend for the 66 that dropped out to have higher staged disease (÷2=9.3 p=0.54), as well as significantly higher pain (z = -2.02 ,p=0.044), nausea (z=-2.04 p=0.041), total mood disturbance (z=-2.04, p=0.036) and fatigue scores (z=-2.98 p=0.003) at baseline.
All received either four weekly 45-minute sessions of their intervention or of standard care/control, then were switched to the other group. All sessions were started on the first day of next chemotherapy treatment cycle. Immediately before and after each session, an assessment of vitals (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure) and self-report of pain (using the BPI) and nausea (using the BNI) was done. On the first and fourth sessions of each four-week period, an assessment of intervention effects including anxiety, mood states and fatigue (using POMS) was conducted, as well as an overall satisfaction with care assessment. Daily diaries were maintained to track anti-emetic and analgesic use by patients. At the end of the eighth week period, an evaluation of each intervention administered was requested. Ongoing CAM use outside the study was assessed prior to and at the end of each four-week period.
Results: There were two outcomes with carryover effects, despite wash-out efforts by the investigators. These were anti-nausea medication with ondansetron use (z=-2.15, p=0.031) and pain interference (z=-3.76 p<0.0001). As a result, only the first period data were used for testing these two variables, resulting in less power for detecting a difference. In addition, the presence (P) (of a caring professional) condition was compared to the control condition. In the P group, before and after each session, a lower respiratory and heart rates (p<0.001) were found then in the control group. Mood disturbance reduction with Healing Touch was close to significant (p=0.058).
Immediate pre and post session outcomes included pain, nausea and vital sign measures. Using Area Under the Curve (AUC) analysis over all four sessions, MT and HT were associated with reduced respiratory rate (p<0.001), heart rate (p<0.001), systolic/diastolic pressure (p<0.001) and pain (MT (p<0.001) and HT (p<0.011) compared to non-intervention controls. Compared to presence (P), MT and HT were more associated with reducing heart rate (p=0.011), systolic blood pressure(p<0.01) and pre-post current pain (p<0.001).
Intervention effects measured over four weeks were also compared to control effects using ANCOVA and GLM analyses, with the first measure used as the covariate. A significant decrease in total mood disturbance (F=6.06,p=0.15) for the treatment groups (including presence) over time in comparison to the control condition was seen. In comparison of matched control periods with their individual interventions via paired t-tests, MT was associated with reduced total mood disturbance (t61=3.0, p=0.004), anxiety (t61=2.3, p=0.023) with the effect on fatigue close to significant (t61=1.9, p=0.057). HT was associated with reduced total mood disturbance (t55=3.2, p=0.003) and fatigue (t55=2.3, p=0.028) with mood disturbance close to significance (t44=2.0, p=0.058).
Other results of significance were the following: Subjects receiving massage used less NSAID medications during the massage than during the control period (z=-2.4, p=0.018). Subjects receiving MT and HT evaluated ranked their overall satisfaction and helpfulness of the treatments much higher then those who received presence only (÷2 =28.66, p<0.0001, adjusted Ü of 0.016). No adverse events were reported during or at the end of the study.
Human Studies in Non-Cancer Populations
14Ziembroski J, Gilbert N, Bossarte R, Guldberg M. Healing Touch and Hospice Care: Examining Outcomes at the End of Life. Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2003 Jun;9(3):146-51.
Purpose: Improve quality of life
Type of study: Randomized controlled trial
Methods: Patients receiving hospice care within their own homes or nursing homes were randomized to receive three Healing Touch treatments (n=29) or standard hospice and nursing care (n=26) between the fifth and 21st day of entering the hospice program.
Results: Patients in both groups experienced declines in physical functioning over time, but those in the Healing Touch group experienced less dramatic declines (-0.333 versus –0.824) and some amelioration of physical symptoms (+0.316 compared to -0.191). Healing Touch patients did less well in two other areas with declines in transendency (meaning and purpose in life) (-0.571) and well-being (-0.105) compared with the standard hospice group who reported some improvement (0.100 and 0.053). No change occurred in interpersonal relations (perceived quality of interactions with family/friends) and declined slightly in the control group.
15Silva C. The effects of relaxation touch on the recovery level of post anesthesia abdominal hysterectomy patients. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine 1996 Jul;2(4):94.
Note: Although the specific words, "Healing Touch" were not used in this study, a leading authority on Healing Touch has identified it as one.
Purpose: Relaxation and recovery from surgery
Type of study: RCT, possibly single-blind
Methods: Prior to surgical hysterectomies, three groups of women (20 in each group) were randomly assigned to three days of post-operative treatment with one of the following:
- The investigator’s presence and a 20-minute energy-based technique of relaxation touch consisting of modulation and stimulation of the patient’s energy while the investigator was in a meditative state.
- The investigator’s presence and a 20-minute traditional back massage with massage oil.
- No treatment and no presence from the investigator for 20 minutes.
Recovery and relaxation were measured for three days beginning with the first post-operative day. The Recovery Index summed up four measures of activity: pulmonary, gastrointestinal, urinary and motor. Relaxation was evaluated through measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse and respiratory rates.
Results: The group receiving "relaxation touch" had an earlier recovery than either of the two other groups after one treatment (P<0.01), two treatments (P<0.0001) and three treatments (P<0.01). No significant treatment differences occurred in vital signs, bowel treatments or narcotics used.
Cautions Concerning This Report:
Although this report was published in a peer-reviewed journal, it was only published in abstract form. Accordingly, not enough information has been provided to determine if the data support the conclusions.
If the investigator also provided the massage and was previously biased in favor of relaxation touch, this could have influenced both the conduct of the massage and the resulting outcomes.
17Krucoff MW, Crater SW, Green CL, Maas AC, et al. Integrative noetic therapies as adjuncts to percutaneous intervention during unstable coronary syndromes: monitoring and actualization of Noetic Training (MANTRA) feasibility pilot. American Heart Journal 2001;142(5):760-7.
Note: The words, "Healing Touch" were not used in the description of this study, but Dr. Diane Wardell, a leading authority on Healing Touch has cited it as an example.
Purpose: Effects upon symptoms and survival
Type of study: Randomized, controlled and partially blinded clinical trial
Methods: Of 170 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for unstable coronary syndromes, 150 agree to participate in this study. They were randomly assigned to five groups: standard therapy, prayer, stress relaxation, touch and imagery. (Only the prayer could be assigned in a double-blind fashion.) Interventions were provided before the procedure. Non-invasive electronic monitoring provided continuous assessment of procedure outcomes during hospitalization. Patients were seen in the clinic or received a phone call at six months.Results: No significant differences occurred in total ischemia, heart rate variability or other clinical outcomes during or after catherterization or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). When prayer, stress relaxation, touch and imagery were combined into one "noetic" treatment group, there was a 25% to 30% reduction in adverse clinical outcomes (statistical significance not reported); however, all of the mortality also occurred in this combined group, a non-significant difference (P = .12).
12Rexilius SJ, Mundt C, Erickson Megel M, Agrawal S. Therapeutic effects of massage therapy and healing touch on caregivers of patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Oncology Nursing Forum. Online. 2002 Apr;29(3):E35-44.
Purpose: Reduce anxiety, depression, subjective burden and fatigue
Type of study: Prospective controlled study
Methods: Caregivers of patients undergoing stem cell transplants were recruited to receive two sessions a week for three weeks. The sessions consisted of Healing Touch for 10 patients, massage therapy for 10 patients and usual nursing care plus a 10-minute support visit for the 13 controls.
Results: Significant declines occurred in anxiety scores, depression and fatigue for individuals in the massage therapy group. In the post-study questionnaire most of the Healing Touch group found the treatments very relaxing and provided a time when they could focus on themselves and not worry about their family member. Two out of the nine who responded said they had relief from arthritis pain. Anxiety and depression scores decreased while fatigue and subjective burdens increased, but none of these changes were statistically significant.
Caution Concerning This Report: Only the abstract for this study has been reviewed.
3Wilkinson DS, Knox PL, Chatman JE, Johnson TL, Barbour N, Myles Y, et al. The Clinical Effectiveness of Healing Touch. J of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2002;8(1):33-47.
- To determine the effects of Healing Touch upon the immune marker, secretory immunoglubulin A (sIgA), stress and relaxation.
- To determine whether practitioner training level moderates treatment effectiveness.
Type of Study: Prospective study with self controls
Methods: Subjects were recruited from among the new clients of Healing Touch practitioners and from among outpatients of a local addiction recovery treatment program. The target number of subjects was 25, but only 22 could be recruited which left the study with an observed power of 0.746 (80% is a standard). Subjects received one 30-minute session each of healing touch, healing touch plus music and guided imagery and a rest period with the Healing Touch practitioner seated in the same room. Questionnaires concerning anxiety and tendency to have a "placebo response" plus saliva samples were collected from each participant before and after each session. Preliminary questionnaires assessed current levels of stress.
- Significant differences were not detected between sIgA levels before and after any of these individual sessions. However, significant interactions were detected between sIgA levels over the course of the three sessions. Post-treatment stress reductions or relaxation responses occurred that were significantly different from pretest ratings for sessions with Healing Touch (p < 0.0003) or Healing Touch plus music and guided imagery (p < 0.0003). The most prevalent theme identified in qualitative analysis of comments was relaxation.
- Significant interaction occurred between sIgA levels over the course of the three sessions and the practitioner’s level of training (p=.021). Mean levels rose significantly with more experience (p <= 0.014, effect size 0.32) and fell with less experience. However, subjects in the group whose practitioners had less training had more of a tendency to respond to placebos.
8Wardell DW. The trauma technique: How it is taught and experienced in Healing Touch. Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2000 Feb;6(1):20-7.
Purpose: Demonstration and follow-up for a specific Healing Touch technique for chronic pain following trauma
Type of study: Uncontrolled series, convenience sample
Methods: Twelve students in three classes taught by Mentgen were selected to participate in this study based upon the nature of their chronic pain, previously experienced traumatic injuries and Mentgen’s perception of their energy fields. The Healing Touch Trauma Release technique was then demonstrated on each of these 12 students. This consisted of an in-depth discussion of a previous trauma and then a relaxation session on a massage table. When Mentgen judged that relaxation had occurred, she asked each student to identify each point of impact. At each of these impact points, she used a simple, direct, repetitive phrase combined with touch. Following these demonstrations, notes were taken during class discussions and a written request was sent asking each participant if they had "any further experiences around that healing". Ten of the 12 responded to the subsequent request.
Results: During the Trauma Release sessions, participants recalled previously forgotten aspects of the trauma and perceived movement and release of pain coinciding with the touch of Mentgen. After one month, the following 10 written responses were received:
- Increase in pain - 0
- No change - 2
- Initial decrease in pain then return of pain - 2
- Decrease in pain - 2
- Absence of pain - 4
- Wardell DW, Mentgen J. Healing Touch: An energy-based approach to healing. Imprint (Journal of the National Student Nurses' Association) 1999 Feb-1999 Mar;46(2):34-5, 51.
- Wardell D. Personal Communication 2003 Mar 15.
- Wilkinson DS, Knox PL, Chatman JE, Johnson TL, Barbour N, Myles Y, et al. The Clinical Effectiveness of Healing Touch. J of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2002;8(1):33-47.
- Mentgen J. The clinical practice of healing touch. Imprint (Journal of the National Student Nurses' Association) 1996 Nov-1996 Dec;43(5):33-6.
- Mentgen JL. Healing Touch. Nursing Clinics of North America 2001 Mar;36(1):143-57.
- Healing Touch International [Web Page]. (Accessed 2003 Oct 28).
- Umbreit AW. Healing Touch: Applications in the Acute Care Setting. AACN Clinical Issues 2000;11(1):105-19.
- Wardell DW. The trauma technique: How it is taught and experienced in Healing Touch. Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2000 Feb;6(1):20-7.
- Loveland Cook C, Guerrerio J, Slater V. Healing touch and quality of life in women receiving radiation treatment for cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Altern Ther Health Med 2004;10 (3)(May/June):34-40.
- Post-White J , Kinney ME, Savik K, Gau JB, Wilcox C, Lerner I. Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer. Integr Cancer Ther 2003 Dec; 2(4):332-44.
- Sparber A, Bauer L, Curt G, Eisenberg D, Levin T, Parks S, et al. Use of complementary medicine by adult patients participating in cancer clinical trials.[comment]. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2000 May;27(4):623-30.
- Rexilius SJ, Mundt C, Erickson Megel M, Agrawal S. Therapeutic effects of massage therapy and healing touch on caregivers of patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Oncology Nursing Forum. Online. 2002 Apr;29(3):E35-44.
- Baker FS. Healing in psychotherapy: Using energy, touch, and imagery with cancer patients. Gestalt Review 2000;4(4):267-89.
- Ziembroski J, Gilbert N, Bossarte R, Guldberg M. Healing Touch and Hospice Care: Examining Outcomes at the End of Life. Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2003 Jun;9(3):146-51.
- Silva C. The effects of relaxation touch on the recovery level of post anesthesia abdominal hysterectomy patients. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine 1996 Jul;2(4):94.
- Davies S, Riches L. Healing touch?. . .massage, rheumatoid arthritis. Nursing Times 1995 Jun;91(25):42-3.
- Krucoff MW, Crater SW, Green CL, Maas AC, et al. Integrative noetic therapies as adjuncts to percutaneous intervention during unstable coronary syndromes: monitoring and actualization of Noetic Training (MANTRA) feasibility pilot. American Heart Journal 2001;142(5):760-7.